Array

 

Arrays follow contiguous memory allocation ( a classical memory allocation model that assigns a process consecutive memory block ). They are used to store multiple values in a single variable.

 

Value in the square bracket specifies the number of elements in the array.

 

 

Way to Define a array.

 

For strings

 

string fruits[3] = {"Banana", "Mango, "Apple"}; 

 

For number

 

int Num[3] = {10, 56, 12};

 


Access the elements of a array

 

Elements of a array are accessed by referring to the index numbers.

 

Example:

 

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

int main() 
{
  string fruits[3] = {"Banana", "Mango", "Apple"};
  cout << fruits[0];
  return 0;
}

 

Output:

Banana

 

Change an array element

This is also done by referring to index numbers

 

Example:

 

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

int main() 
{
  string fruits[3] = {"Banana", "Mango", "Apple"};
  fruits[0] = "Orange";
  cout << fruits[0];
  return 0;
}

 

Output:

Orange

 

Loops and Arrays

Array elements can be looped.

 

Example:

 

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

int main()
{
  string fruits[3] = {"Banana", "Mango", "Apple"};
  for(int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
    cout << cars[i] << "\n";
  }
  return 0;
}

 

Output:

Banana
Mango
Apple

 

Note: Array's size doesn't have to be defined inside the square bracket. But if it is not defined it will only be as big as the elements that are inserted into it.

 

In the following code 3 is the arrays maximum size. However if the size is specified the array will occupy that much space even if space is left empty.


Example:

string cars[] = {"Banana", "Mango", "Apple"};